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1. This Philippine Standard on Auditing (PSA) establishes the independent auditor’s overall responsibilities when conducting an audit of financial statements in accordance with PSAs. Specifically, it sets out the overall objectives of the independent auditor, and explains the nature and scope of an audit designed to enable the independent auditor to meet those objectives. It also explains the scope, authority and structure of the PSAs, and includes requirements establishing the general responsibilities of the independent auditor applicable in all audits, including the obligation to comply with the PSAs. The independent auditor is referred to as “the auditor” hereafter. 2. PSAs are written in the context of an audit of financial statements by an auditor. They are to be adapted as necessary in the circumstances when applied to audits of other historical financial information.
3. The purpose of an audit is to enhance the degree of confidence of intended users in the financial statements. This is achieved by the expression of an opinion by the auditor on whether the inancial statements are prepared, in all material respects, in accordance with an applicable financial reporting framework. In the case of most general purpose frameworks, that opinion is on whether the financial statements are presented fairly, in all material respects, in accordance with the framework. An audit conducted in accordance with PSAs and relevant ethical requirements enables the auditor to form that opinion. (Ref: Para. A1)
4. The financial statements subject to audit are those of the entity, prepared and presented by management of the entity with oversight from those charged with governance. PSAs do not impose responsibilities on management or those charged with governance and do not override laws and regulations that govern their responsibilities. However, an audit in accordance with PSAs is conducted on the premise that management and, where appropriate, those charged with governance have responsibilities that are fundamental to the conduct of the audit. The audit of the financial statements does not relieve management or those charged with governance of those responsibilities. (Ref: Para. A2-A11)
5. As the basis for the auditor’s opinion, PSAs require the auditor to obtain reasonable assurance about whether the financial statements as a whole are free from material misstatement, whether due to fraud or error. Reasonable assurance is a high level of assurance. It is obtained when the auditor has obtained sufficient appropriate audit evidence to reduce audit risk (i.e., the risk that the auditor expresses an inappropriate opinion when the financial statements are materially misstated) to an acceptably low level. However, reasonable assurance is not an absolute level of assurance, because there are inherent limitations of an audit which result in most of the audit evidence on which the auditor draws conclusions and bases the auditor’s opinion being persuasive rather than conclusive. (Ref: Para. A28-A52)
6. The concept of materiality is applied by the auditor both in planning and performing the audit, and in evaluating the effect of identified misstatements on the audit and of uncorrected misstatements, if any, on the financial statements. In general, misstatements, including omissions, are considered to be material if, individually or in the aggregate, they could reasonably be expected to influence the economic decisions of users taken on the basis of the financial statements. Judgments about materiality are made in the light of surrounding circumstances, and are affected by the auditor’s perception of the financial information needs of users of the financial statements, and by the size or nature of a misstatement, or a combination of both. The auditor’s opinion deals with the financial statements as a whole and therefore the auditor is not responsible for the detection of misstatements that are not material to the financial statements as a whole.
7. The PSAs contain objectives, requirements and application and other explanatory material that are designed to support the auditor in obtaining reasonable assurance. The PSAs require that the auditor exercise professional judgment and maintain professional skepticism throughout the planning and performance of the audit and, among other things: